China’s importance as an economic power is rising rapidly. At the same time Beijing is playing an important political role in the fields of security, energy and environmental politics as well as in development cooperation. This trend is likely to gain further pace, which in turn raises new questions and challenges for European foreign and domestic politics. How do the governments of various European countries react to these challenges? And how do European societies adjust their view of China in regards to the country’s changing geo-political and geo-economic role? Is their self-perception affected by China’s newly gained significance? What options does the European Union have to cope with Beijing’s growing clout? Is China becoming a trustworthy partner or a future rival? Do the Europeans gain any advantage by the increasing competition between Washington and Beijing? The aim of the research project is to provide sound answers to these and other questions regarding the impact of China’s current world status on European countries.