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Further, Turkey shows decreases regarding the Exports and Reserves indicators, as well as a decrease in terms of the Country’s GDP (PPP), where it comes in 6th place, just behind Australia and India. The only other positive development can be seen in terms of Turkey’s Military Spending with a slight increase (MC 0,21). Turkey comes in 5th place in terms of this indicator, showing the same positive development as India and Korea.
Regarding Turkey’s Pillars of Success, it shows positive developments in regard to Military Spending, and the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Turkey generally seems to be more of a hard power than a soft power, however, it seems to be losing hard power as well. Turkey’s general development appears to be relatively stagnant since the last observed period but showing a rather negative development.
Please cite as:
Center for Global Studies (CGS) (2022). “Bonn Power Shift Monitor: Turkey: Losing Hard Power”, University of Bonn, Bonn.