Global Power Shift
Gegründet und herausgegeben von Professor Gu, dient die Schriftenreihe Global Power Shift“ zur Veröffentlichung herausragender Analysen und Beiträge zur globalen Machtverschiebung und ihrer politischen, wirtschaftlichen und gesellschaftlichen Auswirkungen. Aufgenommen werden vor allem interdisziplinäre und internationale Studien, die innovative Ansätze bzw. Anregungen für die Wahrnehmung und Erklärung der globalen Machtverschiebung entwickeln. Ziel der Studienreihe soll es sein, die Wirtschaft, Politik und Gesellschaft über die Machtverlagerung unter den Weltregionen zu sensibilisieren und sie dazu einzuladen, sich antizipierend über deren Konsequenzen sowie entsprechender politischer Reaktionsmöglichkeiten nachzudenken.
Letzte Aktualisierung: 17. März 2023
In dieser Reihe sind bislang erschienen:
Attinà, Fulvio/Feng, Yi (Eds.): China and World Politics in Transition. How China Transforms the World Political Order
The book explains why China’s power affects all global issues and examines China’s quest for a breakthrough between world disorder and great power politics. The authors provide analyses on China’s response to the world order transition.
Beretta, Silvio/Berkofsky, Axel/Iannini, Giuseppe (Eds.): India’s Foreign Policy and Economic Challenges. Friends, Enemies and Controversies
The book provides a comprehensive, state of the art analysis of India’s foreign and security policies and analyzes India’s relations with regional powers and actors as well as with Pakistan, Russia, the US, and the EU. It examines India’s response to China’s resurgence and assertive regional security policies.
Alaranta, Toni: Turkey’s Foreign Policy Narratives. Implications of Global Power Shifts
The book offers a comprehensive account of Turkey’s foreign policy narratives. The author analyzes how global power shifts, such as the rise of China, affect Turkey’s position in the world and contextualizes Turkish Narratives of the Syrian War.
Werther-Pietsch, Ursula: Transforming Security. A New Balance-of-Power Doctrine
This book examines the collective security system as it now stands, focusing on strategic and normative frameworks. The author offers practice-driven research perspectives in the field of peacekeeping and frames a post-COVID-19 world of adapted global intervention.
Gu, Xuewu: Structural Power in the Global Age. Why Modernity is Ending and Globality Prevails
The author explores global power shifts in various areas of international relations. The book explains why the modern age is at an end and the global age has already begun and it reveals the high degree of globalization that characterizes today’s competition between the major powers
Kirchberger, Sarah/Sinjen, Svenja/Wörmer, Nils (Eds.): Russia-China Relations. Emerging Alliance or Eternal Rivals?
This book provides an up-to-date assessment of strategic cooperation fields between China and Russia. It examines the potential military-strategic impact of a Russian-Chinese alliance for NATO and condenses expertise on technical, military, economic and political aspects of Chinese-Russian cooperation.
Ali, S. Mahmud: The US-China-Russia Triangle. An Evolving Historiography
This book provides an overview of how the US-China-Russia triangle has evolved over time. The author examines the trajectory of US strategic perspectives on shifting China–Russia relations and reveals findings from an unprecedented examination of US archival documentation.
Eichler, Jan: NATO's Expansion After the Cold War
This book analyses the expansion of The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) into the post-Soviet space after the end of the Cold War. Based on an extensive analysis of the literature and government documents, including doctrines, statements and speeches by the most influential decision-makers and other actors, it sheds new light on the geopolitical and geostrategic context of the expansion of the military alliance, and assesses its impact on international security relations in Europe.
The first chapter introduces readers to the neo-realist approach and develops the methodological basis of the book. The following chapters provide a historical overview of the causes and consequences of two waves of eastward NATO enlargement. Special attention is paid to the annexation of the Crimea and to Russian hybrid-asymmetric warfare. Finally, thirty years after the end of the Cold War, the book notes a disturbing return to militarization in international security relations. To counter this process, the author calls for a reduction of current international tensions and a new policy of détente.
Ali, Syed Mahmud: China's Belt and Road Vision
This book examines the evolution and major elements of China’s Belt-and-Road Initiative (BRI), a trillion-dollar project for the revival and refinement of ancient terrestrial and maritime trade routes. The author analyses the foreign policy and economic strategy behind the initiative as well as the geoeconomic and geopolitical impact on the region. Furthermore, he assesses whether the BRI has to be considered as a challenge to the US-led order, leading to a Sinocentric order in the 21st century.
Offering two case studies on the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (MSR), the book reveals the drivers motivating China and its partners in executing BRI projects, such as security of commodity-shipments, energy supplies, and explores trade volumes as well as the anxiety these trigger among critics. The book juxtaposes these to non-Chinese, specifically multilateral institutional and Western corporate, inputs into Beijing’s developmental planning-processes. It also identifies the role of combined Chinese-foreign stimuli in generating the policy priorities precipitating the BRI vision, and the geoeconomic essence of BRI’s implementation.
Attinà, Fulvio (Ed.): World Order Transition and the Atlantic Area
This book examines the current phase of world order transition in the Atlantic area, focusing on Europe and Northern America, Asia, and Africa. In particular, it describes four processes of world order transition, namely the decreasing American leadership, the rising power of China, the receding effectiveness of economy and security world policies, and the continued but inadequate operation of the world policy-making institutions.
Ohnesorge, Hendrik W.: Soft Power: The Forces of Attraction in International Relations.
This book explores the phenomenon of soft power in international relations. In the context of current discourses on power and global power shift s, it puts forward a comprehensive taxonomy of soft power and outlines a methodological roadmap for its empirical study. To that end, the book classifies soft power into distinct components – resources, instruments, reception, and outcomes – and identifies relevant indicators for each of these categories.Moreover, the book integrates previously neglected aspects into the concept of soft power, including the significance of (political) personalities. A broad range of historical examples is drawn upon to illustrate the effects of soft power in international relations in an innovative and analytically differentiated way. A central methodological contribution of this book consists in highlighting the value of comparative-historical analysis (CHA) as a promising approach for empirical analyses of the soft power of different actors on the international stage.By introducing a comprehensive taxonomy of soft power, the book offers an innovative and substantiated perspective on a pivotal phenomenon in today’s international relations. As the forces of attraction in world politics continue to gain in importance, it provides a valuable asset for a broad readership.
“In this important and thoughtful book, Hendrik Ohnesorge explains and advances our knowledge of the ways that soft power, public diplomacy, and charismatic personal diplomacy are shaping the international relations of our global information age.”
Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Harvard University and author of The Future of Power
“Soft power is a much-used term, almost a commonplace in current-day international relations. Yet its multiple dimensions are seldom explored, and its usefulness as a methodological tool rarely explained. This book covers these gaps with some skill. By introducing a four-level approach, focusing on resources, instruments, reception, and outcomes, Hendrik Ohnesorge has provided a critical guidebook for the analysis of soft power in IR.”
Giles Scott-Smith, Roosevelt Chair in New Diplomatic History, Leiden University
Zięba, Ryszard: The Euro-Atlantic Security System in the 21st Century
This book examines the evolution of the Euro-Atlantic security system, from cooperation to rivalry and crisis, since the beginning of the 21st century. By highlighting the causes, manifestations and international consequences of this evolution, the author describes a stage of crisis in the security system, characterized by increasing rivalry for spheres of influence, militarization of policies and the suspension of cooperation due to the growing divergence between the interests of the West – now including the Central European states – and Russia, leading to a subsequent reconfiguration of the world order.
Adopting a neo-realistic approach, the author demonstrates that members of the Euro-Atlantic security system, irrespective of the values they claim to hold, are guided in their actions on the international stage by clearly defined interests. The first part of the book analyses the nature of the Euro-Atlantic security system, while the second part illustrates the limited success of Euro-Atlantic collaboration, for example in combating terrorism. Lastly, the third part discusses the consequences of the crisis, such as the conflict in Ukraine, and prospects for the future evolution of the Euro-Atlantic security system.
Turcsányi, Richard Q.: Chinese Assertiveness in the South China Sea - Power Sources, Domestic Politics, and Reactive Foreign Policy
This book offers an assessment of China’s assertive foreign policy behavior with a special focus on Chinese policies in the South China Sea (SCS). By providing a detailed account of the events in the SCS and by analyzing power dynamics in the region, it identifies the driving forces behind China’s assertive foreign policy. Considering China’s power on a domestic as well as an international level, it examines a number of different sources of hard and soft power, including military, economics, geopolitics, and domestic legitimacy.
The author demonstrates that Chinese assertiveness in the SCS can be explained not only by increases in China’s power, but also by effective reactions to other actors’ foreign policy changes. The book will appeal to scholars in international relations, especially those interested in a better understanding of South China Sea developments, China’s political power and foreign policy, and East Asian international affairs.
Ali, S. Mahmud: US-Chinese Strategic Triangles - Examining Indo-Pacific Insecurity
This book reveals the nature of Sino-US strategic competition by examining the influence exerted by major secondary stakeholders, e.g. Japan, Russia, India, the Koreas, and ASEAN, on the two powers, USA and its rival China, who consider each other as a source of greatest challenges to their respective interests. By adopting “strategic triangles” as the analytical framework and assessing triangular relational dynamics, such as US-China-Japan or US-China-Russia, the author illustrates how secondary stakeholders advance their own interests by exploiting their respective linkages to the two rivals, thereby, shaping Sino-US completive dynamics. This work adds a regional and multivariable perspective to the understanding of the Indo-Pacific’s insecurity challenges.
Kühnhardt, Ludger: The Global Society and Its Enemies – Liberal Order Beyond the Third World War
This book discusses contemporary constellations of international politics and global transformation. It offers guidance on how to conceptualize the complexity of current global changes and practical policy advice in order to promote an open global society. In the light of today’s challenges, the author re-interprets the main argument of the philosopher Karl Popper in „The Open Society and Its Enemies“. Based on this framework and new empirical evidence, the book discusses the thesis of an ongoing Third World War, triggered by fundamental deficits in nation-building, occurring primarily within states and not between them, and accelerated by asymmetric forms of warfare and Islamist totalitarianism.The book also explores various threats to the global order, such as the paradox of borders as barriers and bridges, the global effects of the youth bubble in many developing countries, and the misuse of religious interpretation for the use of political violence. Lastly, the author identifies advocates and supporters of a liberal, multilateral and open order and argues for a reinvention of the Western world to contribute to a revival of a liberal global order, based on mutual respect and joint leadership.
Fels, Enrico: Shifting Power in Asia-Pacific? The Rise of China, Sino-US Competition and Regional Middle Power Allegiance.
This book investigates whether a power shift has taken place in the Asia-Pacific region since the end of the Cold War. By systematically examining the development of power dynamics in Asia-Pacific, it challenges the notion that a wealthier and militarily more powerful China is automatically turning the regional tides in its favour. With a special emphasis on Sino-US competition, the book explores the alleged linkage between the regional distribution of relevant material and immaterial capabilities, national power and the much-cited regional power shift.
The book presents a novel concept for measuring power in international relations by outlining a composite index on aggregated power (CIAP) that includes 55 variables for 44 regional countries and covers a period of twenty years. Moreover, it develops a middle power theory that outlines the significance of middle powers in times of major power shifts. By addressing political, military and economic cooperation via a structured-focused comparison and by applying a comparative-historical analysis, the book analyses in depth the bilateral relations of six regional middle powers to Washington and Beijing.
Stimmen zum Buch
Fels’s book can easily be seen as the most comprehensive and conceptually rigorous academic work currently available assessing China’s power. […] His discussion of individual theories of power is so comprehensive that it could work as a stand-alone book. Similarly, chapters on regional middle powers are extensive and provide excellent insights into these countries’ perspectives on China and the United States.” (Prof. Dr. Richard Q. Turcsanyi, International Affairs, Vol. 94 (1), 2018)
Enrico Fels, a research fellow at the University of Bonn, marshals a staggering amount of empirical and theoretical data in attributing the global power transition to decentralized shifting allegiances—foremost in the Asia-Pacific area—and to fluid realignments indicative of the ceaseless yet immensely more complex balancing, unbalancing, and rebalancing of power. […] Shifting Power in Asia-Pacific? [is] the product of dedicated, even prodigious, research; of laboriously aggregated and interpreted data; and of creative conceptual framing. (Prof. Dr. Aharon Klieman, Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, July, 2017)
Fels certainly makes a significant contribution in mapping the pattern of middle-power-oriented material and relational power shifts among great powers […] Fels’ book, written in an exceptionally scholarly manner, will prove highly valuable to academics, policymakers, investors and other stakeholders who want to be well informed of the changing strategic landscape and foreign policy behaviors in the Asia-Pacific, including the economic and political risks that may arise as a result of increased Sino-U.S. competition. (Dr. Aaron Jed Rabena, Asian Politics & Policy, Vol. 9 (4), 2017)
Die gründliche und methodisch sorgsame Vorgehensweise und das ausgewogene Ergebnis der vorliegenden Analyse sind ein hochwillkommener Beitrag zur Diskussion angesichts einer sich zusehends verschärfenden Sicherheitslage im Asien-Pazifik-Raum. Ein besonders hervorzuhebender Beitrag des Buches besteht nicht zuletzt darin, die Aufmerksamkeit auf einige zu Unrecht vernachlässigte sicherheitspolitische Aspekte der sino-amerikanischen Konkurrenz zu lenken […] Es steht zu hoffen, dass die Interessen, Machtmittel und Verhaltensmuster der asiatisch-pazifischen Mittelmächte in Zukunft stärkere Beachtung bei Analysen des sino-amerikanischen Konkurrenzverhältnisses finden werden. Hierzu gibt die vorliegende Studie einen überfälligen Anstoß. (Dr. Sarah Kirchberger, SIRIUS – Zeitschrift für Strategische Analysen, Vol. 1 (4), 2017)
Ohne Zweifel sollte das Buch Shifting Power in Asia-Pacific? The Rise of China, Sino-US Competition and Regional Middle Power Allegiance ein Pflichttext für alle werden, die zur asiatisch-pazifischen Region wissenschaftlich arbeiten sowie für jene Forscher, welche sich mit Machtmessung in den internationalen Beziehungen beschäftigen. Aufgrund der besonderen Bedeutung des Themas sollte es auch eine Lektüre für Dozenten, Experten und Studenten sein, die sich für die Probleme der modernen Welt und den anstehenden Herausforderungen interessieren. (Prof. Dr. Agata Wiktoria Ziętek, Stosunki Międzynarodowe – International Relations, Vol. 53 (2), 2017; übersetzt aus dem Polnischen)
Fels, Enrico, Vu, Truong-Minh (Eds.): Power Politics in Asia´s Contested Waters - Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea
This volume offers a comprehensive and empirically rich analysis of regional maritime disputes in the South China Sea (SCS). By discussing important aspects of the rise of China´s maritime power, such as territorial disputes, altered perceptions of geo-politics and challenges to the US-led regional order, the authors demonstrate that a regional power shift is taking place in Asia-Pacific. The volume also provides in-depth discussions of the responses to Chinese actions by SCS claimants as well as by important non-claimant actors.
Kirchberger, Sarah: Assessing China´s Naval Power Technological Innovation, Economic Constraints, and Strategic Implications
This book analyzes the rise of China’s naval power and its possible strategic consequences from a wide variety of perspectives – technological, economic, and geostrategic – while employing a historical-comparative approach throughout. Since naval development requires huge financial resources and mostly takes place within the context of transnational industrial partnerships, this study also consciously adopts an industry perspective. The systemic problems involved in warship production and the associated material, financial, technological, and political requirements currently remain overlooked aspects in the case of China.
Drawing on first-hand working experience in the naval shipbuilding industry, the author provides transparent criteria for the evaluation of different naval technologies’ strategic value, which other researchers can draw upon as a basis for further research in such diverse fields as International Security Studies, Naval Warfare Studies, Chinese Studies, and International Relations.
Klieman (eds.): Great Powers and Geopolitics – Great Powers and Geopolitics International Affairs in a Rebalancing World
This book presents the theoretical-historical-comparative political framework needed to fully grasp the truly dynamic nature of 21st century global affairs. The author provides a realistic assessment of the shift from U.S predominance to a new mix of counterbalancing rival middle-tier and assertive regional powers, while highlighting those geopolitical zones of contention most critical for future international stability. The book will appeal to scholars and policy makers interested in understanding the contours of the emerging world order, and in identifying its principal shapers and leading political actors.
Mayer, Maximilian, Carpes, Mariana, Knoblich, Ruth (Eds.): The Global Politics of Science and Technology - Vol 2.
An increasing number of scholars have begun to see science and technology as relevant issues in International Relations (IR), acknowledging the impact of material elements, technical instruments, and scientific practices on international security, statehood, and global governance. This two-volume collection brings the debate about science and technology to the center of International Relations. It shows how integrating science and technology translates into novel analytical frameworks, conceptual approaches and empirical puzzles, and thereby offers a state-of-the-art review of various methodological and theoretical ways in which sciences and technologies matter for the study of international affairs and world politics. The authors not only offer a set of practical examples of research frameworks for experts and students alike, but also propose a conceptual space for interdisciplinary learning in order to improve our understanding of the global politics of science and technology.
The second volume raises a plethora of issue areas, actors, and cases under the umbrella notion techno-politics. Distinguishing between interactional and co-productive perspectives, it outlines a toolbox of analytical frameworks that transcend technological determinism and social constructivism.
Mayer / Carpes / Knoblich (Eds.): The Global Politics of Science and Technology – Vol. 1 / Vol. II
An increasing number of scholars have begun to see science and technology as relevant
issues in International Relations (IR), acknowledging the impact of material elements,
technical instruments, and scientific practices on international security, statehood, and
global governance. This two-volume collection brings the debate about science and technology to the center of International Relations. It shows how integrating science and technology translates into novel analytical frameworks, conceptual approaches and empirical puzzles, and thereby offers a state-of-the-art review of various methodological and theoretical ways in which sciences and technologies matter for the study of international affairs and world politics. The authors not only offer a set of practical examples of research frameworks for experts and students alike, but also propose a conceptual space for interdisciplinary learning in order to improve our understanding of the global politics of science and technology.
Volume 1: This first volume summarizes various timetested approaches for studying the global politics of science and technology from an IR perspective. It also provides empirical, theoretical, and conceptual interventions from geography, history, innovation studies, and science and technology studies that indicate ways to enhance and rearticulate IR approaches. In addition, several interviews advance possibilities of multidisciplinary collaboration.
Volume 2: The second volume raises a plethora of issue areas, actors, and cases under the umbrella notion technopolitics. Distinguishing between interactional and coproductive perspectives, it outlines a toolbox of analytical frameworks that transcend technological determinism and social constructivism.
Heep, Sandra: China in Global Finance – Domestic Financial Repression and International Financial Power
Against the backdrop of China’s increasingly influential role in the international financial architecture, this book seeks to characterize and evaluate China’s financial power potential. It does so by analyzing the relationship between domestic financial repression and international financial power in the context of the political economy of the developmental state. On the basis of a novel theoretical framework for the analysis of the financial power potential of developmental states, the book provides an in-depth analysis of China’s approach to currency internationalization, its creditor status and its policies towards the Bretton Woods institutions while contrasting the country’s present role in global finance with the position of the Japanese developmental state in the 1980s and 1990s.
Boening, Astrid, Kremer, Jan-Frederik, van Loon, Aukje (Eds.): Global Power Europe - Vol 2.
This two-volume project provides a multi-sectoral perspective over the EU’s external projections from traditional as well as critical theoretical and institutional perspectives, and is supported by numerous case studies covering the whole extent of the EU’s external relations. The aim is to strive to present new approaches as well as detailed background studies in analyzing the EU as a global actor.
Boening, Kremer, van Loon (eds.): Global Power Europe – Vol. 1 / Vol. 2
This two-volume project provides a multi-sectoral perspective over the EUs external projections from traditional as well as critical theoretical and institutional perspectives, and is supported by numerous case studies covering the whole extent of the EUs external relations. The aim is to strive to present new approaches as well as detailed background studies in analyzing the EU as a global actor.
Volume 1: The first volume „Theoretical and Institutional Approaches to the EUs External Relations“ addresses the EUs overall external post-Lisbon Treaty presence both globally and regionally (e.g. in its „neighborhood“), with a special emphasis on the EUs institutional framework. It also offers fresh and innovative theoretical approaches to understanding the EUs international position.
Volume 2: The second volume “Policies, Actions and Influence of the EUs External Relations“, examines in both quantitative and qualitative contributions the EUs international efficacy from a political, economic and social perspective based on a plethora of its engagements.
„This is the most comprehensive assessment of the EUs role in the world to date. The 32 chapters cover the whole breadth of the EUs external relations, ranging from democracy promotion to trade policy and climate change negotiations. The volumes will be a highly valuable resource for all students and scholars interested in the EUs global role.“ – Andreas Dür, University of Salzburg
„The EU as a global actor has become the focus of an increasingly intense academic and policy debate. At a time when many question the coherence, effectiveness and visibility of the Union’s role on the global stage, this comprehensive two-volume study provides clear answers to the institutional, theoretical and public-policy dimensions of that role. These essays contribute in significant ways to enhancing our understanding not simply of the way in which the EU conducts itself internationally, but above all of the scale, complexity and ubiquity of its diplomatic and political presence.” – Jolyon Howorth, Yale University
„The two volumes of Global Power Europe make an outstanding contribution to EU studies by engaging both in theoretical debates and in in-depth empirical analyses. The EUs distinctive and innovative role in world politics is superbly examined in a wide range of policy areas. Thus, the two volumes will serve as important standard reference books for students and scholars alike.“ – Stefan A. Schirm, Ruhr-University Bochum
„The European Union is now one of the most complex and active global powers, and its reach extends further than many had ever imagined possible. The „Global Power Europe“ collection examines the totality of the EUs global „actorness“ and influence, using a variety of theoretical insights and sophisticated case studies of EU civilian, economic, security, and ethical policies. It should become a major reference work for EU scholars and policy-makers.“ – Michael E. Smith, University of Aberdeen
„This two-volume project is bound to become a main reference point for anyone interested in the EUs role in international politics. It combines a diverse set of theoretical and geographical lenses with an overview of different policy areas that is unique in its comprehensiveness. The contributions highlight the main challenge ahead of the EU: to maintain its status as a novel actor in international society while at the same time bolstering its influence. “ – Thomas Diez, University of Tuebingen
Rüland/Manea/Born (eds.): The Politics of Military Reform – Experiences from Indonesia and Nigeria
This volume seeks to explain why democratization and military reforms stagnate in newly democratizing countries. The contributions blend historical, ideational, cultural and structural explanatory factors to analyze the trajectories of military reform in Indonesia and Nigeria, two major regional powers that share many structural commonalities. In the tradition of the literature on security sector reform (SSR), the book not only scrutinizes executive initiatives toward military reform, but also provides ample coverage of societal actors. Findings show that while military reform is stagnating in both countries, societal forces ought to be taken into account more as major driving forces in explaining military reform. Several chapters study how legislatures, non-governmental organizations and the civilian defence epistemic community contribute to the transformation of military institutions. The last part of the book tackles another aspect rarely studied in the literature on military reform, namely, the role of militias in military reform.
Fels/Kremer/Kronenberg (eds.): Power in the 21st Century – International Security and International Political Economy in a Changing World
The Center for Global Studies (CGS) is a research institution at the University of Bonn, Germany. One of our main aims is to systematically investigate the phenomenon of the contemporary global power shift among states and regions. The CGS seeks to expand and supplement existing research on power in times of globalization. Key interest is to identify sources of power in the 21st century, their respective mechanism as well as potential interdependencies among them. The concrete effects such shifts may have in terms of power politics remain an important empirical question.
To foster research on this question a book project is set up in order to bring together scholars working in the fields of IR, IPE, economics and security studies.
Main aim of the book project is to collect innovative contributions with new ideas and theoretical approaches (enriched with empirical data) that can increase our understanding of power as well as shifts under the conditions of globalization. Contributions should thus not only reflect current theoretical debates on ‘power’ as well as ‘power shifts’ among entities, but go further in their assessments by presenting fresh insights into relevant aspects of international power in the 21st century as well as new methods of identifying power and its sources, solutions for measuring shifts as well as outlining potential implications and challenges.
I. International Security and Power Shift:
The first section is concerned with theoretical approaches for identifying and measuring power and power shifts in the field of international security. Contributions of this section should provide sound theoretical models for this effort, which not only outline new ways of measuring power and shifts, but identify subsequent implications of those shifts.
II. International Political Economy and Power Shift:
The second section of the book follows the same approach and structure as its first section, but is concerned with power and power shifts in international trade, finance and production.
III. Cross-Sectional Perspectives:
The book’s final section includes theoretical approaches that are concerned with the interplay and convertibility of power and its resources between international security and international political economy.